GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY

Here you will find all important terms about tattoo removal

TRAMP STAMP

The term tramp stamp is slang and usually describes a tattoo in the area of the loins and coccyx in a negative way. The image is often a symmetrical fantasy tribal that is positioned horizontally. The tramp stamp was a widely spread trend a couple of years ago. Nowadays, this body adornment often worn by very young people is rather frowned upon. More and more wearer decide to remove this tattoo by almost pain-free lasering.

Thanks to Nd:YAG laser systems it is possible to remove tattoos scar-free and rather pain-free.

AZO COLOUR

Colouring agents are chemical substances with the property of changing the colour of a material. AZO dyes are synthetic colouring agents. Their main character is one or more AZO bridges. That means, two nitrogen (azote) atoms are bound by a double bond. By now, it is scientifically proven that the human body disassembles the AZO dyes at its AZO bonds into its source materials. This is why AZO dyes are suspected to be carcinogenic. Tattoo and permanent make-up pigments also contain AZO colourants. When creating a tattoo these dyes are inserted into the dermis with pinpricks and can get into deeper skin layers and even your blood stream.

AGE SPOTS

Age spots are even brown marks and are extremely common in elderly people (e.g. almost 90% in Germany). They are often found in the face or on the back of the hand. Normally, they are non-hazardous to health. Their technical term is lentigo senilis. Age spots can be removed gently and permanently by laser.

TEMPORARY TATTOO

A temporary tattoo basically is created the same was the same as a real tattoo. But a temporary tattoos are not real tattoos. The big difference is, that for a temporary tattoo the colour pigments are only inserted into the epidermis. For a real tattoo the pigments are inserted into the dermis, which normally does not renew. Temporary tattoos are controversial and usually fail. The reason: In most cases this pseudo tattoo is inked into the epidermis and accidentally also into the dermis. The epidermis is so fine that it is almost impossible for the tattoo artist to achieve the correct insertion depth.

CE-CERTIFICATION

CE is an abbreviation for “Communautés européennes”, meaning European Community. The CE-certificate is awarded when a device complies with all necessary safety requirements in the European Community. This certificate can only be labeled on products that are designated by the EU directive. Unauthorized labeling constitutes a criminal act.

The manufacturer of a product declares by using this certificate that their product complies with applicable regulations, that it has gone through all necessary hazard analysis and risk assessments. The CE-certificate can be considered a technical ID that is applicable in the EU.

The CE-certificate simplifies the trade control in EU countries when a new technical devices are launched, like the Nd:YAG laser systems. All Nd:YAG laser systems in our tattoolos studios that we use for effective, scar-free and almost pain-free tattoo removal comply with the CE regulations of the EU and were additionally checked by TÜV Rheinland.

CO2 LASER / CARBON DIOXIDE LASER

In a carbon dioxide laser the active compound is CO2. This laser type belongs to the category gas laser. It operates with the wavelength of 10,6µm which is higher than visible light. CO2 lasers are used in dermatology, in the industrial sector and in microsurgery. This laser is great for removing skin layers, but not very suitable for removing tattoos.

CO2 laser are great for removing scars, skin tightening and rejuvenation. Modern CO2 laser treatments can smoothe age-related lines in the face. The so-called skin-resurfacing technique is done with an ablative laser and offers great and long-lasting aesthetic results with little downtime.

A treatment with warmth is a gentle method for tightening and rejuvenating the skin. The laser stimulates the collagen formation for a gentle skin tightening without side-effects.

The CO2 laser is also effective and gentle in treating scars, acne scars, large pores and stretch marks. A fractionated laser treatment is the most modern form of skin treatment today.

DERMATOLOGY

Dermatology is a section of medicine, that specializes on skin and its pathology. The layers of the skin dermis and epidermis, that are affected by tattoo removal, definitely belong to the field of dermatology. There are various specialties within dermatology. One of these is dermal allergology. This special field is concerned with diagnosing and treating allergic reactions on skin and mucosa. If you have any known allergies or had any allergic reactions, please inform your laser therapist in your first consultation.

DERMIS

The dermis is also called corium. Sometimes it might be called leather hide. It carries this term, because this part of the human skin could be turned into leather by tanning. This skin layer anchors and nourishes the epidermis. It contains tear-resistant collagen fibres and elastic fibres. Furthermore, it contains numerous blood and lymph vessels. Skin glands and hair roots are also embedded in this area, as well as most sensory receptors. The elastic fibre keep the skin supple and flexible. With aging, the elasticity decreases and lets the tattoo deform. Luckily, these ugly tattoos can be gently and scar-free removed with a Nd:YAG laser by an experienced laser therapist.

GERMAN HYGIENE INSTITUTE

In january 2008 the German Hygiene Institute (Deutsches Hygienezertifikat - DHZ) was founded in Kleinmachnow near Berlin. It is the first independent Consulting and Testing Agency in Germany, that awards companies for perfect hygiene and cleanliness. For this certification all national requirements are minimum standard. The German Hygiene Institute is a member of the association “Gesundheitsstadt Berlin e.V.” (“Health City Berlin”).

Intensive cooperation with companies and experts from the healthcare sector ensures the DHI a growing exchange of experiences and knowledge of the latest scientific findings in the field of health and hygiene.

As the first laser studio in Germany, tattoolos was certified by the German Hygiene Institute in May 2011. Thus, tattoolos fulfills the high standards of the German hygiene and health system with distinction.

DIATHERMY

For this type of tattoo removal electricity is induced into the skin. Due to the heat the pigments dissolve - by “burning”. Surrounding cells die off, too. After the treatment the dead tissue is shed to the outside and the skin renews itself from the inside.

DISINFECTION

For disinfection, the number of infectious pathogens has to be reduced as far, that an infection can be precluded.

EPIDERMIS

The epidermis is the outer skin layer. The syllable “epi” is greek for “over” or “upon”.

The epidermis protects us against external influences and can be seen as our outer protective cover. It is contains five more layers. They are - from the inside to the outside:
1 Basal layer (stratum basale),
2 Prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum),
3 Granular layer (stratum granulosum),
4 Clear layer (stratum lucidum) and 5 Horny layer (stratum corneum).

The epidermis is composed of 90% horn building cells. They are also called corneal keratocytes. A real tattoo has its pigments stored in the dermis and never in the epidermis. This is way a laser treatment always targets the lower skin layer, the dermis.

MACROPHAGES

Macrophages belong to the white blood cells. As cells of the non-specific (innate) immune system their task is to eliminate pathogens. Within the epidermis they carry the special name langerhans cells. The q-switched Nd:YAG laser selectively destroys the pigments for removing the tattoo. The macrophages within the epidermis absorb these blasted colour particles. Via lymphatic systems this smaller particles can be eliminated.

Q-SWITCHED

If the light of the laser gets intensely compressed and is released as a focussed, ultra short light beam, we call it q-switched. During laser therapy the colourful tattoo pigments in the dermis are targeted for extremely short time periods.

Due to the shockwave of the light the colour pigments are photoaccoustically and mechanically damaged by the laser beam. The surrounding tissue stays intact thanks to the short impulses. This way, the tattoo removal can be done without scarring and almost pain-free.

TATTOO REMOVAL BY BURNING

Burning off a tattoo is surely one of the most painful ways of removing it. This procedure will definitely cause unpleasant scarring. Normally, it is not even publicly offered. The tattoo is removed by literally burning the skin until the complete area is removed. This method cannot be recommended under any circumstances.

SKIN - STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

This cover is a vital organ and therefore has many functions. In a sum, the skin especially protects against:

  • heat, cold and radiation
  • pressure, impact and friction
  • chemical damages and the intrusion of pathogens
  • the loss of water and warmth

The skin is the largest, heaviest and functionally most versatile organ of the human organism. It also carries important tasks regarding metabolism and immune response. From the inside to the outside, the skin (also cutis) is structured as follows:

  • epidermis,
  • dermis
  • subcutis

The epidermis is made of stratified squamous epithelium and about 0,03-0,50mm thick. At the palms and soles it can be as thick as 1,5mm. From the inside to the outside, the epidermis is structured as follows:

  • Horny layer (stratum corneum)
  • Clear layer (stratum lucidum)
  • Granular layer (stratum granulosum)
  • Prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum)
  • Basal layer (stratum basale) - the last two layers building the
  • Germinal layer

The dermis is mostly built of connective tissue fibres and capillary systems, that nourish this area and the epidermis. The lower of the two dermis layers contains sweat and sebaceous glands, as well as smooth muscles and blood vessels for temperature regulation. The subcutis contains bigger blood vessels and nerves of the upper skin layers, as well as connective tissue and fat. Here embedded are sensory cells for the reception of pressure. The epidermis is separated from the dermis by the germinal layer. In this layer, the cells divide about every 30 days. The horny cells are shed and replaced by new cells. A professional tattoo artist inserts the tattoo ink underneath this germinal layer into the dermis. They are permanently stored there and can only be removed by external impulses, e.g. laser treatment.

HYPERPIGMENTATION

Hyperpigmentation is the excessive storage of melanin into the skin. Some areas or the whole skin can be affected by pigments that are supplied endogenic or exogenic. By tattooing the skin stores carbonic pigments. Brown colouring also a form of hyperpigmentation. It is caused by melanocytes which are stimulated by sunlight or certain enzymes.

IMMUNE SYSTEM

The immune system is the body’s defence against pathogens. Foreign substances, microorganisms and damaged cells are eliminated and removed from the body by the immune system. The skin therefore protects against external influences and provides a safe cover. Pathogens and toxic substances normally do not enter into the body. But against the tattoo colour the immune system is more or less helpless. This is way a real tattoo does not vanish or fade on its own. The reason for its persistency: The colour particles are inserted into the lower skin layer, the dermis, and is encapsulated into endogenous cells. When removing the tattoo by laser these exact cells are destroyed, so the colour particles disperse. Only then can the immune system eliminate them and transfer them to the lymphatic system.

LASER

The term laser is an abbreviation for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. By now, there are many different laser systems, that vary by active compound and wave-lengths. Those various wave-lengths are essential to the lasers application and depend on the active compound. The very first laser was a ruby laser, built in 1960. The CO2 laser with gas as active compound achieves a wave-length of 10.600nm. Lasers are also applied in the industrial sector. In modern medicine, various lasers guarantee amazing therapy results, for instance in microsurgery and also in dermatology. For effective, scar-free and almost pain-free tattoo removal, the Nd:YAG laser ensures perfect treatment success.

LASER THERAPY

The term laser therapy (laser treatment) is used to describe the application of a laser in medicine (human medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine) and in cosmetic. Lasers are successfully applied for healing or relieving diseases and unwelcome skin changes and anomalies.

Laser therapy has improved significantly over the last years, so nowadays there are new treatment results in tattoo removal possible. Depending on treatment goal, different laser systems need to be applied. The choice of appropriate laser therapy and right laser system is depending on the desired effect on the tissue. Wave-length, intensity, pulse duration and pulse frequency are important parameters. A scar-free and almost pain-free tattoo removal can be achieved by a laser therapy with a q-switched Nd:YAG laser. To remove a tattoo completely, there are usually several sessions necessary, in four week intervals for sufficient regeneration. The number of treatments depends on type and size of tattoo. More detailed information can be obtained in our free first consultation, that is always conducted before each laser therapy.

A professional laser therapy at tattoolos always start with an extensive and free consultation by one of our specially trained and experienced laser therapists. We also offer free trial treatments.

The complete laser therapy for a full tattoo removal consists of several sessions - depending on size and type of tattoo. A comprehensive laser treatment also includes tips for aftercare and advice on suiting care products after each treatment.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

The lymph system or lymphatic system is an integral part of the body’s immune system. It consists of the lymph vessels and lymphatic tissue. This, in turn, consists of lymph nodes, the thymus, the spleen (lien) and tonsils.

The lymphatic system can be imagined as a fine network of vessels, that works closely with the vascular system. The lymph system’s task is to absorb and transfer excessive fluid and foreign substances from the tissue.

The lymphatic system takes on an important role during tattoo removal by laser: The “shockwave” of the q-switched Nd:YAG laser burst the colour pigments into small parts, which are absorbed and transferred into the lymph system.

LYMPH NODES

The lymph nodes are filter stations of the lymphatic system of the body and are very important to the defence against pathogens. These kidney-shaped organs are 2nm to 2 cm big and spread throughout the whole body. Several lymph vessels meet in a lymph node. The lymph fluid exits the nodes through the hilum and the efferent lymph vessel.

MELASMA

Hyperpigmentation is also called melasma. In medicine it describes an intense accumulation of melanin in the skin, or also: a brown colouring of the skin caused by activation of melanocytes. Any skin area on the body can be affected.

Hyperpigmentation can have various causes. Either the body produces too many pigments or they are applied exogenously.

Pigments are mostly activated by sunlight, but also by certain enzymes. Hyperpigmentation can be treated by prescription creams. A adapted laser therapy can also achieve great treatment results.

MACROPHAGES

Macrophages are large, mobile white blood cells, therefore part of the cell-mediated immunity. They develop from monocytes, which are constantly circulating in the blood stream. By phagocytosis the eliminate harmful pathogens. When removing a tattoo, they eliminate the burst foreign colour particles.

MONOCYTES

Monocytes are part of the immune system. They circulate in the blood stream and eventually turn into macrophages. They destroy foreign structures and are also stored in the spleen. The monocytes live about one to three days before they enter the tissue and turn into macrophages. Here, they life on for several weeks and even months.

AFTERCARE

Even after the actual laser therapy, the patient needs to contribute to a scar-free tattoo removal. Most important is the perfect aftercare of the treated area. Possible redness or swelling, that can occur directly after treatment, can be soothed by cooling. It is also important to simply dab the area dry after showering, never rub. Additionally, the treated area needs to be cared for with the right products. Good laser therapists will give you all necessary advice and suiting products after your treatment.

SCAR

A scar is connective tissue that replaced functional tissue and it is always covered by a very fine epidermis. Since a scar is almost always accompanied by alteration in pigmentation (hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation), it is an unattractive side-effect that needs to be avoided. A tattoo removal by Nd:YAG laser is not only efficient and almost pain-free, it is also scar-free.

ND:YAG-LASER

Nd:YAG laser systems as applied at tattoolos for tattoo removal are solid-state lasers. The active compound is a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet. The Nd:YAG laser works with a wavelength of 1064nm. Thanks to frequency doubling the wavelength of infrared range (1064nm) can be divided into half to 532nm (visible, green light). This way, the range of application is significantly broadened. The Nd:YAG laser is applied in all fields of medicine and is considered the most successful one in tattoo removal. Thanks to frequency doubling the laser can treat black, as well as colourful tattoos. The irradiance is 2nm with a impulse duration of 1,5m/s.

PERMANENT MAKE-UP

Permanent make-up is basically a coloured tattoo, it is also called cosmetic tattoo. For creating permanent make-up microscopic fine colour particles are inserted into the skin. Many people just want to save the time of daily make-up sessions. This way, small difference of the eyebrows or some slight unevenness of the lip contour can also be corrected. Unfortunately, it is often miscarried.

PHOTOTHERMOLYSIS

The shockwave of the laser impulse causes a photoacoustic, mechanical damage of the colour pigments. They are transferred to the lymphatic system and bloodstream for elimination. Some pigment residue can still be found in lymphatic nodes years after the tattoo removal, sometimes even visible from the outside. For this reason, people who are allergic against tattoo colour should refrain from selective photothermolysis. Otherwise, the allergic reaction could move from the skin to the lymph nodes.

REGENERATING PHASE

A complete tattoo removal requires several sessions. A laser therapy is almost pain-free, but the skin still needs time to regenerate and completely heal. The treated area should be free from any swelling or redness before starting the next session. This regeneration phase usually takes four to six weeks. Consult with your laser therapist to find out, when you are ready for your next treatment.

RISKS

A laser therapy with a q-switched Nd:YAG laser carries very little risk. If you decide to get your tattoo removed, please look for a well-trained and experienced laser therapist. A low-risk laser therapy can be conducted by Nd:YAG laser systems, that complies with the CE-regulations of the EU and is additionally certified by TÜV Rheinland. High standards in hygiene should also be emphasized in a laser studio. It should at least comply with the standards of the German Hygiene Institute (DHI).

SCAB

If a little blood surfaces on a small wound, the scab forms after the liquid dries. Even after a laser therapy the treated area can build scab. That is no problem, because this slight crust will fall off on its own during the natural healing process. Please, never scratch this area! If you adhere to this and comply with your laser therapist’s advice for aftercare, the tattoo and scab will both soon vanish. The result: a scar-free tattoo removal.

“DIRT TATTOO”

Tattoos can also be accidentally caused, e.g. by accidents when dust, sand, metal particles, carbon dust or other substances are inserted in a wound.

FRECKLES (EPHELIDES)

Freckles are pigment accumulations that show as small yellowish or brownish spots in the skin. They are caused by sun radiation and the amplified production of melanin in melanocytes, the pigment producing cells in the skin. These reddish, brown or black pigments are responsible for the colouring of skin, hair and eyes in a human. Freckles of occur on people with blond or red hair and fair skin. They are absolutely harmless. There is probably a certain gene determing, if a person gets freckles or not. In some people they fade or even vanish in winter. They also can be removed by special products for skin whitening or by laser therapy. People with freckles are even more sensitive to UV radiation and should pay even more attention to protect themselves.

SUN PROTECTION

Sun protection is important to avoid excessive sun radiation and its unwanted side-effects, like sunburn and its late effects skin cancer.

Too much sun radiation is generally harmful. So everyone should protect themselves by adequate clothing and headgear, or by a sunscreen with sufficient sun protection factor. For a scar-free and almost pain-free tattoo removal pleaser keep in mind: The treated area is extremely sensitive to sun radiation for six to twelve weeks after each treatment. Thus, it is very important to protect your skin from UV radiation. After each session the application of a sun blocker with at least SPF 40 or higher is necessary.

TATTOO REMOVAL

The tattoo was once a fad. Many only regard it as a youthful folly nowadays. This is why more and more people want to get their tattoo removed. Thanks to progressive technology, it is no problem anymore. The most intense and painful method is to surgically remove it. Another possibility is to remove the skin mechanically or chemically.

For an effective, scar-free and almost pain-free tattoo removal, the best method is the removal by Nd:YAG laser. It achieves best treatment results by bursting the colour particles in the lower skin layer so the immune system can eliminate them by transferring them into the lymphatic system. A laser therapy should always be performed by a skilled and experienced laser therapist. When choosing your laser studio pay attention to their certification “Deutsches Hygienezertifikat” by the German Hygiene Institute (DHI).

SUBCUTIS

The subcutis is the tissue underneath the skin. It mostly consists loose connective tissue with little fat pads that prevents heat loss. They function is to isolate. It also protects against cold, stores energy and absorbs external impacts. The amount of fat cells depends on dietary habits. But not only big people have fat cells. There is no cutis without fat cells. Even people who are starving have - even though it sound paradox - embedded fat cells.

This tissue is pervaded by strong fibres of the dermis. They are directly connected to the fascia that lie beneath the subcutis. These connective fibres act as kind of retaining straps. Their strength determines the skins movability. For instance, at the back of the hand the skin can be easily moved in various directions. But try this with the soles of your feet.

WATERJET-CUTING

Tattoo removal by waterjet-cutting is very painful and requires a general aneasthetic. In this process the skin is being cut open by a waterjet, to get to the colour pigments. They are then flushed out.